FANDOM


File:AK-47 type II Part DM-ST-89-01131.jpg

An assault rifle is a selective fire rifle or carbine typically firing ammunition with muzzle energies and sizes intermediate between those of handgun and more traditional high-powered rifle ammunition. Assault rifles are categorized between light machine guns, intended more for sustained automatic fire in a support role, and submachine guns, which fire a handgun cartridge rather than a rifle cartridge. Assault rifles are the standard small arms in most modern armed forces, having largely replaced or supplemented larger, more powerful rifles, such as the World War II-era M1 Garand and Tokarev SVT. Semi-automatic rifles are not assault rifles as they are not selective fire. Belt-fed weapons or rifles with very limited capacity fixed magazines are also generally not considered assault rifles. This list includes some of the more notable assault rifles.

Name/
designation
Year of
intro
Country of
origin
Primary
cartridge
Major users
Ak 5 1985 Flag of Sweden Sweden 5.56x45mm NATO Sweden
Ak 5 is the Swedish version of Belgian FN FNC. It is the main service rifle of the Swedish Armed Forces.
AK-47 1947 Flag of the Soviet Union Soviet Union 7.62x39mm Russia, many others
The simple, easy to manufacture AK-47 was one of the earliest designs for an assault rifle. Once designed and distributed by the Soviet Union for use by the Warsaw Pact nations, it has become the most widespread, most copied assault rifle design in the world.
AK-74 1974 Flag of the Soviet Union Soviet Union 5.45x39mm Russia, many others
The AK-74 is an adaptation of the AKM (which used the 7.62x39mm cartridge) down to the smaller 5.45x39mm cartridge.
AK-100 1990s Flag of Russia Russia 7.62x39mm, 5.45x39mm Russia, many others
In the 1990s, Izhmash designers developed the unified complex of Kalashnikov assault rifles chambered for domestic 7.62 x 39mm, 5.45 x 39mm cartridges as well as the 5.56 x 45mm NATO cartridge to expand the export capabilities of the enterprise.

These assault rifles can be supplied to traditional Russian clients and NATO standard-oriented countries.

The complex comprises assault rifles for general purpose use (AK-74M, AK-101, AK-103) and for auxiliary designation (AK-102, AK-104, AK-105). All of them feature a high degree of unification in the construction of the assemblies and parts as well as the in technology of their manufacture.

AKM 1959 Flag of the Soviet Union Soviet Union 7.62x39mm Russia, many others
The AKM is a redesign of the AK-47 made for ease of mass production. The design is simplified somewhat which also reduced the substantial weight of the AK-47, while adding to its accuracy and reliability.
Beretta AR70/90 1980s/1990s Flag of Italy Italy 5.56x45mm NATO Italy
First born in the early 1970s, its early incarnation (the AR-70/.223) was jointly developed with SIG and saw use only within some Italian Special Forces as well as exports and civilian sales. The design was later modernized to comply with NATO standards, and became in the late 1980s the main assault rifle of the Italian military, retaining such role up to date. The most widely issued version of this weapon is the SC-70/90 folding-stock variant.
CETME 1950s Flag of Spain Spain 7.62x51mm NATO Spain
Based on the prototype Sturmgewehr 45 design, the CETME would, in turn, be influential on the design of the Heckler & Koch G3 family of rifles. The CETME was used by the Spanish military.
Colt Canada C7 rifle 1982 Flag of Canada Canada
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors). Smallwikipedialogo.png
5.56x45mm NATO Canada and others
The C7 is a Canadian variant of the M-16. It is the service rifle of the Canadian Forces, and is also used by the military forces of Norway, Denmark, Iceland, and the Netherlands, and by United Kingdom Special Forces.
ČZ 2000 1991 Flag of Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakia 5.56x45mm NATO Never in active service
Intended to replace the aging Sa vz. 58 as Czecosolvakia's (later Czech Republic and Slovakia) main service rifle, the prototype was tested but never adopted into service. The program was discontinued in 2007.
Daewoo K2 1984 Flag of South Korea South Korea
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors). Smallwikipedialogo.png
5.56x45mm NATO South Korea, Fiji, Peru, Nigeria
The K2 is the primary service rifle of the Republic of Korea Armed Forces. It is based on the designs of the M-16 and AK-47 although the parts are not interchangeable.
EM-2 1951 Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors). Smallwikipedialogo.png
.280 British Never in active service
The EM-2 was an experimental British bullpup assault rifle. It was designed to fire the experimental .280 British round that was being considered to replace the venerable .303 British. The rifle was never brought into service, but it did help lay the groundwork for the development of later, more successful British bullpup rifles such as the SA80.
FAMAS 1978 Flag of France France
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors). Smallwikipedialogo.png
5.56x45mm NATO France and others
The bullpup designed FAMAS is the service rifle of the French military. The weapon is also the primary infantry weapon of Djibouti and is used by the Philippine National Police Special Action Force.
FARA 83 1983 Flag of Argentina Argentina
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors). Smallwikipedialogo.png
5.56x45mm NATO Argentina, Venezuela
Externally resembling the Israeli IMI Galil, internally similar to the Heckler & Koch HK33, the FARA 83 was designed in Argentina to become the service rifle for the Argentine Army. The rifle was brought into service starting in 1984, but never replaced the existing FMAP FSL variant of the Belgian FN FAL which remains Argentina's main service rifle to the present day.
FN CAL 1966 Flag of Belgium (civil) Belgium
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors). Smallwikipedialogo.png
5.56x45mm NATO Never in active service
The FN CAL was designed to be a lower cost, easier to manufacture alternative to the existing FN FAL, although the two guns are not directly related. The CAL never met with any significant interest and was later dropped in favour of the even less expensive FN FNC.
FN F2000 2001 Flag of Belgium (civil) Belgium
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors). Smallwikipedialogo.png
5.56x45mm NATO Belgium and others
The F2000 incorporates many advanced features into its ambidexterous bullpup design. The F2000 is currently in use by Belgian special forces and is being considered as a possible replacement for the FN FNC as the service rifle for the Belgian armed forces.
FN FAL 1953 Flag of Belgium (civil) Belgium
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors). Smallwikipedialogo.png
7.62x51 NATO Many NATO nations and others
Widely used for decades, the FN FAL is one of the more successful assault rifle designs with over one million believed to have been manufactured. The FAL has now been replaced in many arsenals by newer weapons, but the design remains popular and is still in service in many countries.
FN FNC 1979 Flag of Belgium (civil) Belgium
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors). Smallwikipedialogo.png
5.56x45mm NATO Belgium and others
A much better received follow-up to the less successful FN CAL, the FNC has been the main service rifle of the Belgian military since its introduction. Variations on the design have been adopted in several countries with the Swedish Ak 5 and the Indonesian Pindad SS1 being among the more notable examples.
FN SCAR 2007 Flag of Belgium (civil) Belgium
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors). Smallwikipedialogo.png
5.56x45mm NATO United States (experimental)
The SCAR is Belgian arms maker Fabrique Nationale de Herstal's entry into (and eventual winner of) the U.S. Special Operations Command (SOCOM)'s SCAR competition to select a new rifle for special forces. The weapon is still in production and has not yet entered service.
FX-05 Xiuhcoatl 2006 Flag of Mexico Mexico 5.56x45mm NATO Mexico
The Xiuhcoatl was designed and built in Mexico to be the next generation service rifle for the Mexican Army. Though similar to the Heckler & Koch G36, the two are different enough that Heckler & Koch elected not to pursue proposed copyright infringement claims.
Heckler & Koch G11 1980s Flag of Germany West Germany 4.73x33mm caseless Never in active service
Developed in the 1970s and 1980s as a non-production prototype platform for experimental caseless ammunition.
Heckler & Koch G3 1958 Flag of Germany West Germany 7.62x51mm NATO Germany, many NATO and others
The main service rifle of the Bundeswehr (German armed forces) for several decades. Beginning in 1995, the German army largely phased out the G3 in favour of the newer Heckler & Koch G36, but the rifle remains popular throughout the world and is used, in some capacity, by armies on five continents.
Heckler & Koch G36 1995 Flag of Germany Germany
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors). Smallwikipedialogo.png
5.56x45mm NATO Germany, many NATO and others
Developed as a successor to the Heckler & Koch G3, the G36 is currently the service rifle of the Bundeswehr (German armed forces.) It is also widely used by other armies and police forces worldwide.
Heckler & Koch G41 1981 Flag of Germany West Germany 5.56x45mm NATO Never in active service
Produced in small numbers as an intended replacement for the Heckler & Koch HK33, the G41 never found the major military market at which it was aimed and the rights to the design were later sold to Italian arms manufacturer Luigi Franchi. Production has since been discontinued.
Heckler & Koch HK33 1960s Flag of Germany West Germany 5.56x45mm NATO Brazil, Turkey, Thailand, others
The HK33 was designed as an addition to the successful Heckler & Koch G3 family of weapons. It was designed mostly for export and was never used militarily by the Bundeswehr (German armed forces.) The rifle has sustained moderately widespread use in various parts of the world for several decades. The weapon is also used by police forces in several countries.
Heckler & Koch HK416 2005 Flag of Germany Germany
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors). Smallwikipedialogo.png
5.56x45mm NATO Norway, Turkey, United States, others
Designed along the lines of the M4 carbine, the HK416 was built with an eye towards taking over the market share currently held by the M4. It is currently in limited use by the United States Army and by special forces units from Malaysia, Indonesia, the Netherlands, and the United States. The rifle has also, reportedly, been selected by Norway and Turkey to become their primary service rifles.
Howa Type 89 1989 Flag of Japan Japan
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors). Smallwikipedialogo.png
5.56x45mm NATO Japan
The Howa Type 89 is currently in service with the Japan Self-Defense Forces, Japan Coast Guard and the Japanese Special Assault Team. It has never been exported due to strict Japanese anti-export laws.
IMBEL MD2 1985 Flag of Brazil Brazil
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors). Smallwikipedialogo.png
5.56x45mm NATO Brazil
Brazilian arms manufacturer IMBEL's MD2 is based on the design of the Belgian FN FAL and is the current service rifle of the Brazilian Army.
IMI Galil 1972 Flag of Israel Israel
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors). Smallwikipedialogo.png
5.56x45mm NATO Israel and others
Based on the Finnish Rk 62 (in turn based on the AK-47,) the Galil is used by the military and police forces in several nations including Colombia, Israel, Italy, Nepal, and others. It is available in several configurations, some using the 7.62x51mm NATO cartridge.
IMI Tavor TAR-21 2002 Flag of Israel Israel
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors). Smallwikipedialogo.png
5.56x45mm NATO Israel and others
The bullpup designed TAR-21 has been selected to become the new service rifle for the Israel Defense Forces. The rifle is also on order for the special forces or police of several other nations.
INSAS rifle 1997 Flag of India India
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors). Smallwikipedialogo.png
5.56x45mm NATO India, Nepal
The INSAS is a composite design drawn from several existing rifles including the AK-47, FN FNC, AK-74, IMI Galil, and the Heckler & Koch G3. It is the service rifle of the Indian army and has also been exported to neighbouring Nepal.
Kbk wz. 1988 Tantal 1988 Flag of Poland Poland
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors). Smallwikipedialogo.png
5.45x39mm Poland, Iraq
The Tantal is a Polish designed and produced assault rifle based on the highly successful AK-47 family of rifles.
Kbs wz. 1996 Beryl 1996 Flag of Poland Poland
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors). Smallwikipedialogo.png
5.56x45mm NATO Poland
Designed to replace the older AK-47 and AK-74 models then in use, the Beryl quickly became the main service rifle of the Polish Armed Forces.
LAPA FA-03 1970s Flag of Brazil Brazil
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors). Smallwikipedialogo.png
5.56x45mm NATO Never in active service
A Bullpup design far ahead of its times, produced with great usage of polymer materials, the LAPA FA-03 was manufactured only in few hundred samples. With both domestic military adoption and foreign sales crippled by Brazilian policy, this rifle is still today kept in stock by some Brazilian Police units.
Leader Dynamics T2 MK5 1980s Flag of Australia Australia
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors). Smallwikipedialogo.png
5.56x45mm NATO Never in active service
The Leader Dynamics T2 MK5 represents an attempt to produce Australia's first domestically designed and produced gas-operated auto-rifle for the Australian Army. The rifle was never brought into service.
L64/65 1970s Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors). Smallwikipedialogo.png
4.85x49mm Never in active service
The L64/65 was an intermediate step in the design of British bullpup style assault rifles. Though this rifle was never used by any military force, it helped lay the foundation for the successful SA80 series of weapons.
M4 Carbine 1994 Flag of the United States United States
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors). Smallwikipedialogo.png
5.56x45mm NATO United States, many others
A shorter, lighter version of the M-16, the M4 is heavily used by the United States Armed Forces especially for close quarters combat, special operations, and other roles where small size is a major factor. The M4 and its many variants have also been exported to a number of nations around the world.
M16 rifle 1961 Flag of the United States United States
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors). Smallwikipedialogo.png
5.56x45mm NATO United States, many others
The M-16 has been the primary service rifle of the United States Armed Forces since its introduction in 1961. The rifle has also been used, in one variation or another, by dozens of other nations making it one of the most popular assault rifle designs ever.
Pindad SS1 1991 Flag of Indonesia Indonesia
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors). Smallwikipedialogo.png
5.56x45mm NATO Indonesia
The Pindad SS1 is an Indonesian designed variation of the Belgian FN FNC specially adapted for the needs of a jungle environment. The weapon soon gained acceptance as the main service rifle of the Indonesian armed forces.
Pindad SS2 2006 Flag of Indonesia Indonesia
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors). Smallwikipedialogo.png
5.56x45mm NATO Indonesia
An updated version of the Pindad SS1, the SS2 is currently being phased in as the service rifle of the Indonesian armed forces.
QBZ-95 1997 Flag of the People's Republic of China China
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors). Smallwikipedialogo.png
5.56x45mm NATO People's Republic of China and others
A Bullpup design introduced to replace the ageing AK47-based rifles in Chinese service, the QBZ-95 was first introduced when the United Kingdom returned control of Hong Kong to the People's Republic of China. Fires the proprietary 5.8x42mm DBP87 cartridge solely intended for the Chinese military, but the QBZ-97 export variant chambered in 5.56x45mm NATO saw some foreign sales as well as civilian adaptations.
R4 assault rifle 1980 Flag of South Africa South Africa 5.56x45mm NATO South Africa, Hatian police
Developed in 1980 for the South African Defence Force to replace the R1, which was a variant of the Belgian FN FAL, The R4 was first issued during the early 1980s. It's design can trace its ancestry back through the Israeli IMI Galil, and the Finnish Rk 62, back to the AK-47.
Rk 62 1962 Flag of Finland Finland 7.62x39mm Finland
Based on the design of the AK-47, the Rk 62 is the service rifle of the Finnish Defence Forces.
Rk 95 TP 1990s Flag of Finland Finland 7.62x39mm Finland
The Rk 95 was accepted in limited numbers into the Finnish Defence Forces as a possible future replacement for the Rk 62, though this may or may not ultimately occur.
Sa vz. 58 1958 Flag of Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakia 7.62x39mm Czechoslovakia and others
Based on the oft-copied AK-47, the Sa vz. 58 has seen service with several nations' armies including the present day Czech Republic, and Slovakia.
SA80 1985 Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors). Smallwikipedialogo.png
5.56x45mm NATO United Kingdom, Jamaica, Zimbabwe, Nepal
The SA80 is the primary service rifle of the United Kingdom. Its bullpup design springs from four decades of development that saw such earlier, less commercially successful designs as the EM-2 and the L64/65.
SAR-80 1980s Flag of Singapore Singapore
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors). Smallwikipedialogo.png
5.56x45mm NATO Singapore and others
Born in the early 1980s out of the cooperation between the Sterling Armament Company of United Kingdom and Chartered Industries of Singapore, the SAR-80 was a conventional design based upon the American Armalite AR-18 fed by STANAG magazines. Saw very little rear-line use in its homeland, but has since been spotted in conflicts and civil wars in eastern Europe, Asia and Middle East.
SAR-21 1999 Flag of Singapore Singapore
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors). Smallwikipedialogo.png
5.56x45mm NATO Singapore and others
Unveiled in 1999, the SAR-21 is now the service rifle of the Singapore Armed Forces. It is also in service with the armed forces of Brunei, Indonesia, and Morocco, as well as the special forces of Bangladesh.
SIG SG 510 1957 Flag of Switzerland Switzerland 7.5x55mm GP11 Switzerland, Chile, Bolivia
Once the service rifle of the Swiss Army it is now largely phased out in favour of the newer SIG SG 550. It can still be seen in service in the armed forces of Chile and Bolivia.
SIG SG 550 1986 Flag of Switzerland Switzerland 5.6 mm Gw Pat 90 Switzerland and others
Built as a successor to the SIG SG 510, the SG 550 is the standard service rifle of the Swiss Army. The rifle has been exported for use by the armies of Chile, France, Indonesia, and Spain, and counter-terrorism units in Germany and Serbia. The SG 550 is also used by some federal agencies in the United States and by the Papal Swiss Guard at the Vatican.
Steyr ACR 1987 Flag of Austria Austria 5.56x45mm flechette Never in active service
The Steyr ACR was an entry in the United States Army's Advanced Combat Rifle program. The experimental flechette firing weapon was not adopted by the US Army and the rifle has not seen active service.
Steyr AUG 1978 Flag of Austria Austria 5.56x45mm NATO Austria and others
The Austrian Army's main service rifle, the AUG uses a bullpup design that is modular and very adaptable. The same gun can be quickly fitted with an assortment of barrels and switched for left or right-handed operation. The AUG is used by a number of military forces and government agencies worldwide.
Stoner 63 1963 Flag of the United States United States
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors). Smallwikipedialogo.png
5.56x45mm NATO United States (limited, no longer in service)
The Stoner 63 was a family of infantry weapons including assault rifles and light machine guns produced in the 1960s for the United States Armed Forces. The US Navy SEALs and the US Marine Corps field tested the rifles in limited numbers, but the weapons system was never widely used and had been completely phased out by the late 1980s.
Sturmgewehr 44 1944 Flag of Nazi Germany Nazi Germany 7.92x33mm Kurz Nazi Germany (WWII)
Considered by many to be the first true assault rifle, the StG44 was the first weapon to see widespread action that combined the portability and powerful cartridge of a rifle with the automatic firing rate of a machine gun. Previous, similar designs such as the American Thompson submachine gun and M3 submachine gun had fired less powerful pistol cartridges and were, therefore, not true assault rifles.
TKB-517 1950s Flag of the Soviet Union Soviet Union 7.62x39mm Never in active service
Designed to be an easier to produce, more accurate alternative to the externally similar AK-47, the TKB-517 was never adopted by the Soviet military.
T65 assault rifle 1976 Template:Country data Republic of China 5.56x45mm NATO Taiwan, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Panama
The T65 was the main service rifle of Taiwan's ROC Army from 1976 through the mid-1990s when it was phased out in favour of the newer T86 and T91 models.
T86 assault rifle 1998 Template:Country data Republic of China 5.56x45mm NATO Taiwan, Jordan
Similar in design to the American M-16, the T86 was slated to replace the older T65 model as the service rifle of Taiwan's ROC Army, but the intended replacement was delayed and the T86 was superseded by the T91 and was only deployed in limited numbers.
T91 assault rifle 2003 Template:Country data Republic of China 5.56x45mm NATO Taiwan, Jordan, Kuwait
A continuation of the T86 assault rifle's design, the T91 incorporated more features from other existing weapons such as the M-16 and the Heckler & Koch G36. The T91 is currently the primary service rifle of Taiwan's ROC Army.
Type 68 assault rifle 1970s Flag of the People's Republic of China China
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors). Smallwikipedialogo.png
7.62x39mm China
Externally similar to the Chinese SKS rifle, the mechanism is more closely related to the AK-47. The Type 68 is currently in service with the Chinese armed forces.
Type 81 assault rifle 1980s Flag of the People's Republic of China China
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors). Smallwikipedialogo.png
7.62x39mm China and others
The Type 81 combines elements of several earlier rifles to create a design that is externally similar to the AK-47 familty of rifles, but with significant internal differences. The Type 81 was the service rifle of the Chinese People's Liberation Army from the mid-1980s until 1995.
Valmet M82 1978 Flag of Finland Finland 5.56x45mm NATO Never in active service
Only about 2,000 M82s were built during its brief life. The bullpup style rifle was tested in small numbers by Finnish paratroopers, but found to be unsuitable.
Vektor CR-21 1997 Flag of South Africa South Africa 5.56x45mm NATO Never in active service
The CR-21 is a bullpup design of assault rifle introduced as a proposed successor to the South African Army's current R4 assault rifle. The rifle has not yet been selected by any military force and remains a prototype.
Vepr 2003 Flag of Ukraine Ukraine 5.45x39mm Ukraine (not yet in service)
The Vepr is the first assault rifle designed and built in the Ukraine. The weapon--a bullpup modification of the AK-74--is listed by the Ukrainian government as a sub-machinegun, but it fires a rifle cartridge and is, therefore, an assault rifle. The Vepr is slated to be introduced into service with the Ukrainian Ground Forces by 2010.
XM8 rifle 2002 Flag of the United States United States
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors). Smallwikipedialogo.png
5.56x45mm NATO Never in active service
Jointly designed by German arms manufacturer Heckler & Koch, the United States Army, and the US company General Electric, the XM8 was intended to be the next generation of light assault rifle for the US Army; the project was formally cancelled in 2005, but the prototypes are sometimes still used for comparative testings with other rifle designs.
Z-M Weapons LR 300 Flag of the United States United States
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors). Smallwikipedialogo.png
5.56x45mm NATO Never in active service
The LR 300 is a variation on the general design of the M-16; it has never been used in military service.
Zastava M21 2004 Flag of Serbia Serbia 5.56x45mm NATO Serbia and others
The Zastava M21 is based on the ubiquitous AK-47 family of weapons, but chambered for the 5.56x45mm NATO cartridge. It is currently in service with the military of Serbia.
Zastava M70 Flag of Serbia Serbia 7.62x39mm Serbia and others
The Zastava M70 is very closely related to the famous AK-47. The rifle has seen service with several armies including that of Serbia, its producer.
Zastava M77 Flag of Serbia Serbia 7.62x51mm NATO Serbia and others
The Zastava M77 is a Serbian made variation of the AK-47.


This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors). Smallwikipedialogo.png

Ad blocker interference detected!


Wikia is a free-to-use site that makes money from advertising. We have a modified experience for viewers using ad blockers

Wikia is not accessible if you’ve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected.